• [S2] Government of the UK. 1841 Census of Scotland. General Record Office For Scotland
    The 1841 Census for Scotland was taken on the night of 6 June 1841. The following information was requested:
    Place(name of village, street, square, close, etc.)
    Name of each person that had spent the night in that household
    Age*
    Sex (indicated by which column the age is recorded in)
    Profession or occupation
    Where born**

    *The ages of people over 15 years old were usually rounded down to the nearest 5 years. Therefore, someone who was actually 24 years would have their age listed as 20, and someone who was actually 27 years old would have their age listed as 25. If people lied about their ages, or if their real ages were not known or reported correctly, the gap between the rounded age recorded on the census and their actual age may be quite significant.

    **The "Where Born" column only asked two questions - 1) whether born in same county, and 2) whether Foreigner or
    whether born in England or Ireland. Possible answers and abbreviations to question #1 include: Yes (Y), No, (N), or Not Known (NK). For question #2, the following abbreviations were used: England/Wales (E), Ireland (I), and Foreign Parts (F).

    All responses were to reflect the individual's status as of 6/7 June 1841 for all individuals who had spent the night in the house. People who were traveling or living abroad were enumerated at the location where they spent the night on census night

    Localities were organized into enumeration districts. These districts were roughly equivalent to parishes, but not always. A description of the district and its boundaries is given at the beginning of each new enumeration district.

    The returns are generally organized by parish and enumeration district. Each parish has been assigned a "Parish Number". This number was originally assigned in 1855 when civil registration began being kept. The numbers were assigned in a general north to south, and east to west direction by county. Within each county, numbers were assigned in alphabetical order by parish name. Since parish numbers weren't assigned until 1855 and this census was taken in 1841, the numbers were applied to the census retroactively for reference purposes.

    A full reference for a record in the 1841 census includes, the Parish Number, Enumeration District Number, Entry Number (Page Number), Parish Name, County Name, and the Census Year.

    There were a number of parishes that are known to be missing.
  • [S5] US Federal Government. 1870 US Census. National Archives and Records Administration
    Enumerators of the 1870 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. Enumerators were asked to include the following categories in the census: name; age at last birthday (if a child was under one year of age, months of age were to be stated as fractions, such as 1/12); sex; color; profession; occupation or trade of every male and female; value of real estate; place of birth; whether mother and father were of foreign birth; whether born or married within the year and the month; those who could not read; those who could not write; whether deaf, dumb, blind, or insane or "idiotic". No relationships were shown between members of a household

    The official enumeration day of the 1870 census was 1 June 1870. All questions asked were supposed to refer to that date. The 1870 census form called for the dwelling houses to be numbered in the order of visitation; families numbered in order of visitation; and the name of every person whose place of abode on the first day of June 1870 was with the family.
  • [S11] US Federal Government. 1900 US Census. National Archives and Records Administration
    Enumerators of the 1900 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. Enumerators were asked to include the following categories in the census: name; address; relationship to the head of household; color or race; sex; month and year of birth; age at last birthday; marital status; number of years married; the total number of children born of the mother; the number of those children living; places of birth of each individual and the parents of each individual; if the individual was foreign born, the year of immigration and the number of years in the United States; the citizenship status of foreign-born individuals over age twenty-one; occupation; whether the person could read, write, and speak English; whether the home was owned or rented; whether the home was on a farm; and whether the home was mortgaged.

    The official enumeration day of the 1900 census was 1 June 1900. All questions asked were supposed to refer to that date. By 1900, there were a total of forty-five states in the Union, with Utah being the latest addition and Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, New Mexico, and Oklahoma enumerated as territories.
  • [S21] Government of Canada. Canadian Immigration Records. Library and Archives Canada.
  • [S29] Betty Allen. Genealogist - Betty Allen. William Boyd
    Citation for information provided by genealogist Betty Allen. This form of citation is obsolete and will be re-referenced as time permits.
  • [S30] Bill Francis. Genealogist - Bill Francis. William Boyd
    Citation of information provided by genealogist Bill Francis. This citation form is obsolete and will be re-referenced as time permits.
  • [S33] William Boyd. Guess. William Boyd
    This citation is for identifying information which may be reasonably inferred but cannot be proven.
  • [S38] Various. Minden Cemetery. Various
    This citation is for information found on grave markers in the Minden, Ontario cemetery.

    This source is considered obsolete and will be re-referenced as time permits.
  • [S40] Various. Naturalization Record. Various
    Generic citation for a naturalization. Details are included with the specific citation.
  • [S44] Unknown author. Stanhope Museum. N.pub.
  • [S45] US Federal Government. US Border Crossing Records. National Archives and Records Administration
    unknown comments.
  • [S49] Various, Cemetery Listing. Various.
    Generic citation for a cemetery listing. Further details with the specific citation.
  • [S53] US Federal Government. 1880 US Census. US National Archives and Records Administration
    The 1880 census was the first to identify an individual’s relation to the head of household. In addition, the 1880 census was the first to identify the state, county, and other subdivisions; the name of the street and house number for urban households; illness or disability at the time the census was taken; marital status; number of months unemployed during the year; and the state or country of birth of every individual’s father and mother

    The 1880 census began on 1 June 1880 for the general population of the United States. The enumeration was to be completed within thirty days, or two weeks for communities with populations of 10,000 or fewer. Regardless of when an individual was contacted, all responses were to reflect the status of the individual as of 1 June 1880, the official Census Day.

    Thirty-eight states (including the recently admitted Colorado) were enumerated in the 1880 census, along with eight territories: Arizona, Dakota, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Non-organized Alaska was also enumerated, but the "Indian Territory" (now Oklahoma) was not enumerated for non-Indians.
  • [S54] Unknown repository address, unknown record type, unknown repository.
  • [S57] Government of the UK. 1861 Census of England. National Archives of the UK
    The 1861 Census for England was taken on the night of 7 April 1861. All responses were to reflect the individual's status as of 7 April 1861 for all individuals who had spent the night in the house. People who were traveling or living abroad were enumerated at the location where they spent the night on census night.

    Information in this database:
    Name of street, avenue, road, etc.
    House name or number
    Whether property vacant or inhabited
    Surname of head of household
    Name of persons who had spent the night in the household
    Relationship of enumerated person to head of house
    Person’s marital status
    Age at last birthday (gender indicated by column in which age is recorded)
    Person’s occupation
    Person’s place of birth
    Whether blind, deaf, or idiot

    Census returns were collected according to registration district. These returns were divided into sub-districts and assigned consecutive piece numbers for reference purposes. The piece numbers begin in London with number one and work roughly south to north, followed by the Welsh districts and then the Isle of Man and Channel Islands. You will find the piece number on a paper strip at the bottom of every image, following the PRO class number. There may be hundreds of pieces within a county.

    In addition to the piece number, each page of the returns includes a folio number and/or a page number. The folio number was stamped onto every other page before microfilming and is located in the upper right hand corner of the image. Folio numbering usually starts over at the beginning of each piece. The page number is part of the printed form and is found on every page in the upper right hand corner; they also start over at the beginning of every enumeration district. A full reference number for a record in the 1861 census includes the PRO class number (RG9), the piece number, the folio number, and the page number. Keep in mind that you may have to look at several enumeration districts to find the page you want within a given folio since the page numbers start over with every ED.
  • [S58] Unknown family info. Family Bible. N.p.: n.pub., unknown publish date. Unknown present owner, unknown location.
  • [S59] Government of the UK. 1851 Census of England. National Archives of the UK
    The 1851 Census for England was taken on the night of 30 March 1851. The following information was requested:
    Name of street, place, road, etc.
    House number or name
    Name of each person that had spent the night in that household
    Relationship of person enumerated to the head of the family
    Person's marital status
    Age at last birthday (sex is indicated by which column the age is recorded in)
    Person's rank, profession, or occupation
    Person's place of birth (if outside of England or Wales, only the country may be given)
    Whether blind, deaf, or idiot

    All responses were to reflect the individual's status as of 30 March 1851 for all individuals who had spent the night in the house. People who were traveling or living abroad were enumerated at the location where they spent the night on census night.

    Census returns were collected according to registration district. These returns were divided into sub-districts and assigned consecutive piece numbers for reference purposes. The piece numbers begin in London with number one and work roughly south to north, followed by the Welsh districts and then the Isle of Man and Channel Islands. You will find the piece number on a paper strip at the bottom of every image, following the PRO class number. There may be hundreds of pieces within a county.

    In addition to the piece number, each page of the returns includes a folio number and/or a page number. The folio number was stamped onto every other page before microfilming and is located in the upper right hand corner of the image. Folio numbering usually starts over at the beginning of each piece. The page number is part of the printed form and is found on every page in the upper right hand corner. The page numbers start over at the beginning of every enumeration district. A full reference number for a record in the 1851 census includes the PRO class number (HO 107), the piece number, the folio number, and the page number. Keep in mind that you may have to look at several enumeration districts to find the page you want within a given folio since the page numbers start over with every ED.

    A number of parishes are missing or damaged.
  • [S61] US Federal Government. 1850 US Census. National Archives and Records Administration
    For the first time in the history of the United States census, enumerators of the 1850 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. Enumerators were asked to include the following categories in the census: name; age as of the census day; sex; color; birthplace; occupation of males over age fifteen; value of real estate; whether married within the previous year; whether deaf-mute, blind, insane, or "idiotic"; whether able to read or write for individuals over age twenty; and whether the person attended school within the previous year. No relationships were shown between members of a household.

    The 1850 Census includes the following states and territories: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota Territory (includes Dakota area), Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico Territory (includes Arizona area), New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon Territory (includes Washington and Idaho areas), Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah Territory, Vermont, Virginia (includes West Virginia counties), Wisconsin.

    The official enumeration day of the 1850 census was 1 June 1850. All questions asked were supposed to refer to that date.
  • [S62] US Federal Government. 1860 US Census. US National Archives and Records Administration
    Enumerators of the 1860 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. Enumerators were asked to include the following categories in the census: name; age as of the census day; sex; color; birthplace; occupation of persons over age fifteen; value of real estate; whether married within the previous year; whether deaf, dumb, blind, insane, a pauper, or a convict; whether able to read or speak English; and whether the person attended school within the previous year. No relationships were shown between members of a household.

    The official enumeration day of the 1860 census was 1 June 1860. All questions asked were supposed to refer to that date. By 1860, there were a total of thirty-three states in the Union, with Minnesota and Oregon being the latest editions. There were no substantial state- or district-wide losses.
  • [S68] State of New York. 1915 Census of New York. New York State Archives

    The census form included columns for
    permanent residence
    name
    relationship to head of household
    color
    sex
    age
    nativity (country)
    citizenship (if naturalized, where, when)
    occupation
    inmates of institutions and infants under one year of age (to record residence when admitted)

    The final column for inmates and infants served a dual purpose. It was used to list the “residence (Borough, City or Town and County) given by or for the inmates when admitted,” unless the inmate had no other permanent residence. For children under one year of age, enumerators were told to “write the exact number of days of its age on June 1, 1915. For example, if the child was born on January 1, 1915, you would enter the age as ‘151 D’. (If a child is under one year of age and was born at some other place of abode than that in which its permanent residence is on June 1, 1915, enter in column 12 the city or village and state in which it was born; in column 1, street and street number).”.
  • [S69] State of New York. 1925 Census of New York. New York State Archives
    The regular census form included columns for
    permanent residence
    name
    relationship to head of household
    color
    sex
    age
    nativity (country)
    citizenship (if naturalized, where, when)
    occupation
    inmates of institutions and infants under one year of age (to record residence when admitted)

    The final column for inmates and infants served a dual purpose. It was used to list the “residence (Borough, City or Town and County) given by or for the inmates when admitted,” unless the inmate had no other permanent residence. For children under one year of age, enumerators were told to “write the exact number of days of its age on June 1, 1925. For example, if the child was born on January 1, 1925, you would enter the age as ‘151 D’. (If a child is under one year of age and was born at some other place of abode than that in which its permanent residence is on June 1, 1925, enter in column 12 the city or village and state in which it was born; in column 1, street and street number).”.
  • [S70] State of Wisconsin. 1905 Census of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Historical Society
    Both the 1895 and 1905 Wisconsin state censuses cover all counties that existed at the time. This is basically all modern counties with the exceptions of Rusk (not included in the 1895 census because it was not created until 1905) and Menominee (not included in either year since it wasn’t created until 1961). Information listed includes:
    Name of individual
    Place of enumeration
    Date of enumeration
    Relationship to head of household
    Race
    Gender
    Age
    Marital status
    Birthplace

    Additional information about an individual, such as their occupation, may be available on the actual census record. Be sure to view the corresponding image in order to obtain all possible information about an individual.
  • [S71] State of Wisconsin. 1895 Census of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Historical Society
    Both the 1895 and 1905 Wisconsin state censuses cover all counties that existed at the time. This is basically all modern counties with the exceptions of Rusk (not included in the 1895 census because it was not created until 1905) and Menominee (not included in either year since it wasn’t created until 1961). Information listed includes:
    Name of individual
    Place of enumeration

    Additional information about an individual, such as their occupation, may be available on the actual census record. Be sure to view the corresponding image in order to obtain all possible information about an individual.
  • [S73] State of North Dakota. 1915 Census of North Dakota. North Dakota State Archives
    In 1915 and 1925 North Dakota conducted state censuses. The census date for both years was April 1st. Responses to census questions were to be reflective of this date. For example, children born after 1 April were not to be enumerated. Information that may be available in this index includes:
    Place of enumeration (locality, county, and state)
    Enumeration date
    Name (which may include a nickname or maiden name)
    Gender
    Race
    Age

    Additional information about an individual or family may be available on the census image.
  • [S74] State of North Dakota. 1925 Census of North Dakota. North Dakota State Archives
    In 1915 and 1925 North Dakota conducted state censuses. The census date for both years was April 1st. Responses to census questions were to be reflective of this date. For example, children born after 1 April were not to be enumerated. Information that may be available in this index includes:
    Place of enumeration (locality, county, and state)
    Enumeration date
    Name (which may include a nickname or maiden name)
    Gender
    Race
    Age

    Additional information about an individual or family may be available on the census image.
  • [S76] Government of Manitoba. 1870 Census of Manitoba. Library and Archives Canada
    unknown comments.
  • [S78] Unknown author. 1871 Census of England. N.pub.